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Dred Scott v. Sanford

The U.S. Supreme Court ruling in Dred Scott v. Sanford denies citizenship to all slaves, ex-slaves, and descendants of slaves and denies Congress the right to prohibit slavery in the territories.

New Hampshire Repeals Laws Against Blacks

New Hampshire declares that no one shall be denied citizenship on account of African descent and, along with Vermont, repeals laws against the enlistment of blacks in state militia.

Virginia Passes Comprehensive Slave Code

Richmond, Virginia, passes a comprehensive slave code that, among other stipulations, prohibits self-hiring by slaves, restricts blacks from entering certain parts of the city, specifies street etiquette, and forbids slaves from smoking, carrying canes, standing on the sidewalk, and using provocative language.

Ohio and Wisconsin Pass Personal Liberty Laws

Ohio and Wisconsin pass personal liberty laws.

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