Abuses were rampant. Afro-Englishmen were terrorized by slave catchers and former slave masters. England files a complaint with the U.S. delegation which includes George Washington. The U. S. delegation is informed by England’s General Guy Carleton that by English law, all former colonial slaves are Englishmen and entitled to liberty… but Washington claims they are slaves based upon “Colonial statutes”. Washington’s claims were not supported by English law, as the Somerset Decision in 1772 had rendered such statutes void ab initio and England had emancipated all colonial slaves by June 1779 during colonial times. General Carleton states that he will remove all Afro-Englishmen from the United States who wanted to leave, however, if removing Afro-Englishmen and others proved to be a violation of the treaty, applying English law then compensation would be paid by the British government. To provide for that possibility, both he and Washington agreed to generate a registry called Book of Negroes, listing their names, ages, and occupations, along with the names of their former masters, so that “the owners might eventually be paid for the slaves who were not entitled to their freedom by British proclamation and promises”. Both sovereigns keep a registry of negroes.
3,000 Afro-Englishmen Transported Out of the United States
General Guy Carleton transports 3,000 Afro-Englishmen out of the United States and memorializes their names in England’s Book of Negroes.
Judge Rules Insurers Liable to Pay for Lost Slaves
Lord Chief Justice Mansfield rules in court that insurers are liable to pay compensation for the 132 people murdered on the slave ship Zong. The ship’s owners are not charged with murder.
Lord Mansfield Overturns Decision - Rules Owners Should Not Be Compensated
In a second trial in the Zong case, Lord Mansfield overturns his earlier decision and rules that the owners of the ship should not be compensated for the death of the 132 enslaved people that Collingwood had murdered. No further action is taken, but the event outrages public opinion.
Bishop Urges More Humane Treatment of Slaves
The Bishop of Chester, Beilby Porteus, preaches a sermon before the Anglican Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts urging the Church of England to treat the slaves the church held in the West Indies more humanely and to offer them religious instruction.
The Definitive Treaty of Peace
The Definitive Treaty of Peace was signed by America and Great Britain, officially signifying America’s independence and ending the Revolutionary War.
Virginia Emancipates Slaves Who Served
Virginia emancipates those slaves who served in the colonial forces against Britain, provided that the slave’s master gives permission.
Maryland Prohibits Slave Imports
Maryland prohibits the importation of African slaves.
Affluent Blacks In New Orleans Organize for Mutual Aid
Affluent free blacks in New Orleans, Louisiana, organize the Perseverance, Benevolence and Mutual Aid Association to support their own interests and assist the poor.